A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component that is essential for connecting a computer to a network. It implements the physical layer circuits necessary to communicate with a data link layer standard, such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. Each card represents a device and can prepare, transmit and control the flow of data on the network. The NIC allows wired and wireless communications. A data link address is a unique, permanent, 48-bit number assigned by the manufacturer to a NIC that connects a device to the network.
This type of card can be found in virtually any device connected to the network, such as computers, laptops, servers, printers, phones and scanners. In some network equipment, such as switches used for network storage arrays, there are replaceable modules that allow the use of different types of connection. The NIC is responsible for establishing communication between computers. It allows communications between computers connected through a local area network (LAN), as well as communications over a large-scale network using the Internet Protocol (IP). In addition, server adapters have a low CPU occupancy rate, as they have a special network controller that can perform many tasks from the CPU. A wireless network interface card or wireless network interface controller (WNIC) connects to a wireless network, such as Bluetooth or WI-FI, using an antenna to communicate using radio waves.
Network operating systems communicate with the NIC through NIC driver software called the Network Data-Link Interface Specification (NDIS) or Open Data-Link Interface (ODI).In conclusion, a NIC is an essential piece of hardware for connecting computers to networks. It provides a dedicated connection to the network and allows for wired and wireless communications. It also has a low CPU occupancy rate and is responsible for establishing communication between computers.